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Hymns (mp3)

Be Still My Soul
Follow Christ
God of Earth
If You Have Faith
O God of Love
Keep Us Safe
O God of Life
God of Abraham
Cry for Justice
This is My Prayer
To Make You True
Where are You

 

Carols (mp3)

Ding Dong
Coventry
Friendly Beasts
Lo a Rose
Patapan
What Child
Unto Us
Huron Carol
Jesus Born
Dark of Winter
Foom
All Mortal Flesh
Drummer Boy
Gabriel's Message
Hush My Dear
Infant Holy
Savior Come
We Three Kings

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Quest for Truth

Faith in Human Rights

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Doing Ethics in a Diverse World

Doing Environmental Ethics

Exegesis

It is often claimed today that the Christian Bible is the literal, infallible, or inerrant word of God. This claim asserts the Bible, or Christian scripture, is not a human creation but is simply a record of divine revelation. There is, however, nothing in the Bible that says scripture is only a recording of God's words, and reading the Bible suggests otherwise.

The argument that the Bible is the literal, infallible, or inerrant word of God was formulated by English and American Protestants after the Reformation to resist Catholic claims of infallible teaching authority and support in Reformed churches for historical and literary analysis of the Bible. This claim ignores historical facts:

  • The church created the New Testament in the fourth century.
  • No original biblical manuscripts are available and scholarly research of 
    ancient manuscripts has led to new translations.
  • Neither ancient creeds nor Reformed confessions claim the Bible is 
    literally the infallible or inerrant word of God.
  • This claim is shaped by English and American history.

To consider these arguments in more detail see Inerrancy, Confessions, and Creeds.  

Anyone who reads the Bible can see that it is the creative work of human authors, and history reveals it is the witness of the church to God in Christ. The Christian Bible has no authority apart from Christians who have faith in its testimony.

Go to Explaining Our Christian Faith to learn why the Bible shows:

  • We are not depraved sinners.
  • We are not saved by the blood sacrifice of Jesus.
  • No one will be left behind at the end of time.

For a New Testament Bible Study with questions and answers, click here.

Inspired word of God

The belief that the Bible is the inspired word of God does not require believing that the Bible is the literal, infallible, or inerrant word of God. We should be clear, however, about what we mean by "inspiration." In the New Testament the second letter of Paul to Timothy asserts: "All scripture is inspired by God and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness." (2 Tim. 3:16) This letter was written in the first century before the New Testament was created over the next three centuries. Paul and other Greek-speaking apostles were reading the Hebrew Bible in its Greek version known as the Septuagint. Their scripture was the Septuagint, not the Hebrew texts that later the Protestant Reformers would decide were properly the "scripture" of the Old Testament (rather than the Septuagint). Paul and other apostles may have felt that their writings were inspired, but the gospels and letters in the New Testament never are identified as "scripture."

Therefore, the passage from 2 Timothy cannot be used to prove the Christian Bible is inspired. Its reference to "scripture" is to the Septuagint, not to the Old and New Testaments that make up the Christian Bible. For Paul and the other apostles, the Jewish scriptures ─ the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings ─ were thought to be inspired by God.

What might "inspired" mean? It might mean that God has dictated scripture to scribes, who simply wrote what they were told and thus that every word in scripture is from God. Or, it might mean that the authors of scripture understood, in the light of past revelation, their experience and the history of their people as God's will. It might also mean that in communicating this inspiration, in Hebrew, Aramaic or Greek, they created the narratives, images and arguments that later their descendants judged to have been inspired by God.

Reading the New Testament will quickly dispel the first notion that Christian scripture is nothing but the words of God. Parables and teachings in the New Testament may strike us as inspiring, but we will also find interpretations and inconsistencies that are best attributed to biblical writers or scribes rather than to God. Those who wrote and edited the New Testament may have been inspired, but they were also human.

Because the New Testament was first written in Greek, knowledge of the Greek spoken at the time of its writing is obviously useful in studying Christian scripture. But most Christians throughout the history of the church have heard and read the Christian Bible in translations. For centuries the Latin Bible was used by priests in the Catholic Church, and after the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century the Christian Bible was quickly translated into all the languages of northern Europe.

Protestant churches have made preaching from the Bible, rather than the celebration of the sacrament of Communion, the touchstone of their faith. The invention of the printing press made copies of the Bible affordable, and Christian families began to have Bibles in their homes. Protestant preachers encouraged Bible study, and Christians without much formal education were among those inspired by what they read in scripture. In the 19th and 20th centuries the Christian Bible was translated into every known language and carried by missionaries to every country.

Today, the Bible is not only the most widely published and circulated book in the history of human civilization, it is also for about a fourth of the world's peoples a primary source for understanding God's will. Reading the Bible has inspired millions, and there is little evidence this will soon cease. The church teaches that its scripture reveals the will of God and asserts, therefore, that scripture is not only inspiring but also inspired by God. This claim, however, is a matter of faith, which can be verified only within the life of the church. But the inspiring power of scripture is a fact of history that is confirmed by the continuing witness of Christians in the world.

Reading Christian Scripture

Anyone who writes about the Christian Bible ought to clarify how he or she reads it. Of course, there are not simply two or three alternatives, but many more subtle choices to be made. I believe it is not necessary to read scholarly books about the Bible to understand its meaning. With the church I affirm that the Bible reveals the word of God to those with "ears to hear and eyes to see." (Mt. 11:15, Mk. 4:9, Lk. 8:8)

In addition, I ground my understanding of the Bible in the Confessions of the Reformed tradition.  A line in the Scots Confession of 1560 states clearly my approach to reading scripture: "We dare not receive or admit any interpretation which is contrary to any principal point of our faith, or to any other plain text of Scripture, or to the rule of love."  We begin with the plain text of scripture, then interpret a text within the context of the whole Bible and the teachings of the church, and finally test our understanding by the great commandment to love God and our neighbor.

The Confession of 1967 of the Presbyterian Church asserts that: "The one sufficient revelation of God is Jesus Christ, the Word of God incarnate, to whom the Holy Spirit bears unique and authoritative witness through the Holy Scriptures, which are received and obeyed as the word of God written." This Confession does not assert that the Bible is infallible or inerrant but holds: "The Scriptures are not a witness among others, but the witness without parallel." The Confession identifies the scriptures are the "unique and authoritative witness" of faith: "The church has received the books of the Old and New Testaments as prophetic and apostolic testimony in which it hears the word of God and by which its faith and obedience are nourished and regulated."

The Confession of 1967 also teaches: "The Bible is to be interpreted in light of its witness to God's work of reconciliation in Christ." But the Confession explicitly recognizes that the Bible is a human composition: "The Scriptures, given under the guidance of the Holy Spirit, are nevertheless the words of men, conditioned by the language, thought forms, and literary fashions of the places and times at which they were written. They reflect views of life, history and the cosmos which were then current." Given this fact, interpretation is unavoidable. "The church, therefore, has an obligation to approach the scriptures with literary and historical understanding.  As God has spoken in diverse cultural situations, the church is confident that God will continue to speak through scripture in a changing world and in every form of human culture."

I read the Bible within this tradition of study and preaching. Therefore, I suggest that all those who read Christian scripture keep in mind the following rules as guidelines. Visitors are invited to click on each rule for a more detailed explanation.

Rules for Reading the Bible

1. The New Testament continues the biblical story of God.

The New Testament continues the story of God known to the Jews through their scriptures. The Christian Bible is an interpretation of the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible (the Septuagint), and "God in Christ" is a new understanding of the God of the Torah, the Prophets, and the Writings.

2. Paul's Letters are the earliest writings of the church in the New Testament.

Paul's letters were written before the New Testament gospels and resist efforts by the Jerusalem church to require observance of Jewish law in the church. Paul proclaims salvation through faith in Christ crucified, says little about the teaching and ministry of Jesus, and claims authority for his gospel from the risen Lord.

3. The gospel of Mark is the first New Testament gospel.

The gospel attributed to Mark (all the New Testament gospels are anonymous) is the earliest New Testament gospel and supports Paul's view that faith, not Jewish law, is saving. The gospel presents Jesus Christ as the Son of God, tells the story of his itinerant ministry in Galilee, is critical of his disciples, and the earliest version of this gospel ends without a resurrection appearance.

4. The gospels of Matthew and Luke are edited versions of the gospel of Mark.

The gospels attributed to Matthew and Luke edit the gospel of Mark, adding a "common sayings tradition" and other materials. The gospel of Matthew addresses a mostly Jewish Christian audience. The gospel of Luke and Acts of the Apostles by the same author speak to a largely Gentile Christian community.

5. The gospel of John is an even freer version of the gospel story.

The gospel attributed to John was written for a Greek-speaking Jewish community of faith that understood Jesus as the Word of God made flesh and as the Passover "Lamb of God" sent by the Father but rejected by "the Jews." The author freely revises the gospel narrative in order to defend the worship of his church.

6. The letters of Peter and James reveal their declining authority in the church.

The letters attributed to Peter and to James reveal the declining authority of these two first generation apostles after 70 CE. All four gospels and the Acts of the Apostles verify Peter's leading role, and Galatians and Acts confirm that James, the brother of Jesus, became the head of the church in Jerusalem.

7. The letters and Revelation of John warn of false teaching and pagan persecution.

The letters and Revelation attributed to John concern the threats of false teaching in the churches and pagan persecution in the Roman Empire. The letters are anonymous but share in the teaching tradition of the gospel of John. Revelation includes letters warning churches in Asia and an extraordinary vision of Christ's victory over Satan.

8. The Christian Bible is a tapestry of meanings.

The New Testament weaves together varied testimonies of faith that shaped the witness of the church at the end of the first century and the beginning of the second century. The result is a tapestry of meanings that includes and requires interpretation.

9. The New Testament is an interpretation of the Old Testament.

The authors and editors of the letters and gospels of the New Testament drew on the scriptures of the Greek version of the Hebrew Bible to construct and interpret the story of Jesus and the church's witness to life in the kingdom of God through faith in Christ.

10. The God of the Bible calls us to resist idolatry and oppression with love.

Our assumptions about history and biography make it hard to see that the New Testament revises the Old Testament revelation of God's justice and mercy as a way of resisting imperial idolatry and oppression. The gospel proclaimsw that the God, who defeated Pharaoh for Israel, chooses death under Roman rule as a way of calling all humanity to a life of justice and love.

These conclusions can be verified by anyone who reads the New Testament and may help us discern the word of God to which the church bears witness through its scriptures.

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1 in Faith: A Christian Bible Study Copyright 2000 by Robert Traer